How do hormones affect thermoregulation in a women’s body?

Female reproductive hormones influence the thermoregulation mechanisms in a woman’s body as they naturally fluctuate throughout the menstrual cycle, during pregnancy, and at menopause. Of these, the most widely recognized effects are hot flashes experienced during menopause, and temperature changes that occur during the menstrual cycle.

Specifically, estrogens tend to promote lower body temperatures by affecting blood flow to the skin and sweating, as well as dilation of peripheral blood vessels. In contrast, progesterone tends to promote higher body temperature by influencing changes in both thermoregulatory set-point and constriction of blood vessels in the skin.

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